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Research Article


Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding

Mohamed Tharwat, Fahd Al-Sobayil, Haytham Ali.


Abstract
Background:
Acute hemorrhage is fatal in equines with a complication of severe hypovolemic shock that causes a sudden death in such cases.
Aim:
This study was designed to report the influences of acute bleeding in conscious non-sedated donkeys (Equus asinus) on the hematobiochemical variables, acid-base, blood gas elements and markers of inflammation and bone metabolism.
Methods:
Eight healthy donkeys were used where a total of 900mL of whole blood was collected. Five blood samples were collected from each animal: just before collection of blood (T0); (2) 30min (T1), 60min (T2), 120min (T3) and 240min (T4) later. The blood panels including total white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, red blood cell counts (RBCs), HCT, hemoglobin (Hg) and RBCs indices were measured. Biochemical parameters and electrolytes were evaluated. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were also determined. Complete acid-base and blood gas panel were assessed. Serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and pyridinoline cross-links (PYD) were measured.
Results:
The RBCs, Hg and HCT increased significantly at points T1, T2 and T3 compared to T0. The concentrations of total proteins and albumin decreased significantly at points T3 and T4. The blood urea nitrogen concentrations increased significantly at T4. Creatinine concentrations increased significantly at T2 and T3. The AST, GGT and CK decreased significantly. On the other hand, glucose increased significantly at T3 and T4. The pH decreased significantly at points T1, T2, T3 and T4. The PCO2 increased significantly at T 3 and T4. The BE, HCO3 and TCO2 values decreased significantly at T2, T3 and T4. Contrary, the AG increased significantly at points T3 and T4. The potassium increased significantly at T1-T4 and chloride decreased significantly at T3 and T4. Lactate showed significant increases at T1-T4. The SAA, Hp, OC, b-ALP and PYD did not differ significantly at T1-T4.
Conclusion:
In conscious non-sedated donkeys, induced bleeding resulted in significant changes in the hematobiochemical elements, the acid-base status and blood gas and electrolyte parameters. However, it did not change the markers of inflammation and bone metabolism.

Key words: Biomarkers, Blood, Inflammation, Physiology, Shock


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Tharwat M, Al-Sobayil F, Ali H. Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding. Open Vet J. 2024; 14(5): 1146-1153. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8


Web Style

Tharwat M, Al-Sobayil F, Ali H. Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=186029 [Access: July 13, 2024]. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Tharwat M, Al-Sobayil F, Ali H. Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding. Open Vet J. 2024; 14(5): 1146-1153. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Tharwat M, Al-Sobayil F, Ali H. Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding. Open Vet J. (2024), [cited July 13, 2024]; 14(5): 1146-1153. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8



Harvard Style

Tharwat, M., Al-Sobayil, . F. & Ali, . H. (2024) Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding. Open Vet J, 14 (5), 1146-1153. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8



Turabian Style

Tharwat, Mohamed, Fahd Al-Sobayil, and Haytham Ali. 2024. Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 (5), 1146-1153. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8



Chicago Style

Tharwat, Mohamed, Fahd Al-Sobayil, and Haytham Ali. "Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding." Open Veterinary Journal 14 (2024), 1146-1153. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Tharwat, Mohamed, Fahd Al-Sobayil, and Haytham Ali. "Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding." Open Veterinary Journal 14.5 (2024), 1146-1153. Print. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Tharwat, M., Al-Sobayil, . F. & Ali, . H. (2024) Changes in the hematobiochemical, acid–base and blood gas elements as well as biomarkers of inflammation and bone metabolism in donkeys (Equus asinus) with acute bleeding. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 (5), 1146-1153. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i5.8