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Research Article


Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats

Zeinab Z. Khater, Hend Sh. Ghareeb.


Abstract
Background:
One of the most challenging pests to control is the wild rat (Rattus norvegicus), which poses serious risks to both human health and the economy. Fertilizers are a more recent method of pest management with various action modes and are considered safe control agents when applied at low doses.
Aim:
The present study aimed to examine the toxicological impacts of the contaminated water with urea and camphor oil individually, post-treatment of rats with camphor oil after the pre-treatment with urea and post-treatment of rats with urea mixed with camphor oil after urea pre-treatment against the wild rats (Rattus norvegicus).
Methods:
The study extends to explore the influence of these treatments on the physicochemical parameters of the water administered by rats. Moreover, the effect of the most three toxic treatments was studied on the blood and renal functional parameters and the kidney tissue of rats after 21 days of treatment.
Results:
The study showed that urea was more potent than camphor oil when applied individually and increasing the concentration of urea in the pre-treatment or when combined with camphor oil in the post-treatment caused a significant increase in the mortality of rats. The post-treatment of rats with camphor oil only or camphor oil mixed with urea after the pre-treatment with urea induced a synergistic activity against rats. In addition, the exposed water to urea and camphor oil has been modified in physicochemical parameters and formed ulcers and harm to the kidneys of the exposed wild rats.
Conclusion:
This study significantly contributes to the ecological and toxicological potential risk indexes of urea and camphor oil together, which are restricted on the perceptible value relevance in the literature of water quality and renal pathology. So, urea and camphor oil represent successful agents for the wild rat's control.

Key words: Urea and camphor oil, Toxic influence, Physicochemical parameters of water, Hematological parameters, Electron microscopy of rat kidney


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Khater ZZ, Ghareeb HS. Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats. Open Vet J. 2024; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 500-511. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45


Web Style

Khater ZZ, Ghareeb HS. Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=182393 [Access: April 10, 2024]. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Khater ZZ, Ghareeb HS. Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats. Open Vet J. 2024; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 500-511. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Khater ZZ, Ghareeb HS. Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats. Open Vet J. (2024), [cited April 10, 2024]; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 500-511. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45



Harvard Style

Khater, Z. Z. & Ghareeb, . H. S. (2024) Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats. Open Vet J, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 500-511. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45



Turabian Style

Khater, Zeinab Z., and Hend Sh. Ghareeb. 2024. Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 500-511. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45



Chicago Style

Khater, Zeinab Z., and Hend Sh. Ghareeb. "Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats." Open Veterinary Journal 14 (2024), 500-511. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Khater, Zeinab Z., and Hend Sh. Ghareeb. "Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats." Open Veterinary Journal 14.(1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference) (2024), 500-511. Print. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Khater, Z. Z. & Ghareeb, . H. S. (2024) Ecological and oral toxicity assessment of urea and camphor oil against Rattus norvegicus rats. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 500-511. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.45