E-ISSN 2218-6050 | ISSN 2226-4485
 

Research Article


Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022

Ahmed A.H. Ali, Fatma Abdallah, Omayma A. Shemies, Gamilat A.H. Kotb, Maged R. Nafea.


Abstract
Background:
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of abortion and respiratory disease. Equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), on the other hand, is exclusively associated with respiratory disease in horse populations worldwide, particularly in Egypt and Arabian countries.
Aim:
This study aims to investigate the circulation of EHV-1 and EHV-4 in the Arabian horse population through molecular detection and genetic characterization of EHV-1 and/or EHV-4 that may threaten the stability of horse industry.
Methods:
A total of 80 samples including 50 nasal swabs, 10 vaginal swabs and 20 whole blood samples were collected from vaccinated and registered pure-bred Arabian adult horses from different studs in the governorates of northern Egypt(Cairo, Dakahlyia and Qalyubia) from 2021 to 2022. The collected samples were screened using consensus PCR for detection of EHVs using specific primers targeting DNA polymerase gene.The positive samples were subjected to conventional PCR for detection of EHV-1 and/or EHV-4using specific primers targeting glycoprotein(gB)gene.EHV-1 and EHV-4 amplicons were partially sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed using Sanger method.
Results:
Consensus PCR revealed that 48 out of 80 samples were positive for EHVs with percentage of 60%. Typing of the selected positive samples using conventional PCR showed that 29 out of 80 were positive for EHV-1 with percentage 36.25%, while 24 out of 80 samples were positive for EHV-4 with percentage 30%.Mixed infections with both viruses were detected in 5 samples. The amplified products were sequenced using Sanger method and submitted to GenBank under accession number OM362231MG-1 for EHV-1 strain and OM362232 MG-4 for EHV-4 strain. Sequence analysis and alignments of the amplified fragments of the EHV-1 and EHV-4 glycoprotein B (gB) gene to that of GenBank-derived reference strains revealed a high degree of similarity. According to the phylogenetic tree, the obtained sequences of EHV-1 and 4 in the current study showed homogeneity with local Egyptian and foreign EHV-1 and 4 strains and heterogeneity with EHV-2 and 5.
Conclusion:
The current investigation showed that molecular methods are appropriate assays for an efficient and accurate diagnosis of EHVs. Furthermore, it supports earlier research findings about the prevalence of EHV-1 and 4 in Arabian horse populations in Egypt.

Key words: Alphaherpesvirus, Arabian horse, Sequencing, Phylogenetic tree, Egypt


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Ali AA, Abdallah F, Shemies OA, Kotb GA, Nafea MR. Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022. Open Vet J. 2024; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 534-544. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48


Web Style

Ali AA, Abdallah F, Shemies OA, Kotb GA, Nafea MR. Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022. https://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/?mno=182421 [Access: June 04, 2024]. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Ali AA, Abdallah F, Shemies OA, Kotb GA, Nafea MR. Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022. Open Vet J. 2024; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 534-544. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Ali AA, Abdallah F, Shemies OA, Kotb GA, Nafea MR. Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022. Open Vet J. (2024), [cited June 04, 2024]; 14((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)): 534-544. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48



Harvard Style

Ali, A. A., Abdallah, . F., Shemies, . O. A., Kotb, . G. A. & Nafea, . M. R. (2024) Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022. Open Vet J, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 534-544. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48



Turabian Style

Ali, Ahmed A.H., Fatma Abdallah, Omayma A. Shemies, Gamilat A.H. Kotb, and Maged R. Nafea. 2024. Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 534-544. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48



Chicago Style

Ali, Ahmed A.H., Fatma Abdallah, Omayma A. Shemies, Gamilat A.H. Kotb, and Maged R. Nafea. "Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022." Open Veterinary Journal 14 (2024), 534-544. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Ali, Ahmed A.H., Fatma Abdallah, Omayma A. Shemies, Gamilat A.H. Kotb, and Maged R. Nafea. "Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022." Open Veterinary Journal 14.(1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference) (2024), 534-544. Print. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Ali, A. A., Abdallah, . F., Shemies, . O. A., Kotb, . G. A. & Nafea, . M. R. (2024) Molecular characterization of equine herpes viruses type 1 and 4 among Arabian horse populations in Egypt during the period between 2021-2022. Open Veterinary Journal, 14 ((1) (Zagazig Veterinary Conference)), 534-544. doi:10.5455/OVJ.2024.v14.i1.48