Alaa Samy(1), Eman Abo Elfadl(2), Naglaa Gomaa(3), Mohamed A. Hamed(4), Abdelnaser Ahmed Abdallah(5) and Mohamed Abdo Rizk(6*)
1- Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary, Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
2- Department of Animal Husbandry and Development of Animal Wealth, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
3- Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafr Elshiekh University, Kafr Elshiekh, Egypt
4- Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary, Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt
5- Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
6- Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Background: Rectal prolapse (RP) is a serious illness of the rectum and small intestine causing serious health problems in domestic animals. Although, there is a paucity in the estimation of the risk factors associated with this problem in calves.
Aim: In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with the rectal prolapse in both bovine and buffalo calves in Egypt with highlighting the most appropriate treatment strategy.
Methods: Forty-two calves (23 bovine and 19 buffalo) suffering from varying degrees of rectal prolapse were used. From the owners' anamnesis, the farm and animal levels risk factors associated with each animal were collected. Fisher exact tests were used to determine the distribution of frequencies in the different rectal prolapse grades. Descriptive statistics were calculated in the form of Mean ± Standard deviation (SD) using one-way ANOVA. Crosstabs were used to determine a spearman's correlation between variables. According to the disease severity, the appropriate treatment strategy was accomplished either by medicinal or surgical interferences.
Results: Final logistic regression form demonstrated that the statistical test, Hosmer and Lemeshow’s goodness of fit indicates a significant result (χ2, 8.91). Body score was the potential risk factor for the occurrence of RP in calves. Medicinal management along with dietary modification was sufficient to treat 70% of grade I in a successful manner, while 33.3% (grade I and grade II) were effectively treated surgically with reduction and application of purse-string sutures.
Conclusion: The current study advocates the valid role of resection of rectal mucosa combined with manual reduction and retention in treating calves suffered from grade II rectal prolapse. The final multivariate logistic regression model indicates that the calf's body score is a potential risk factor for the occurrence of RP.
Keywords: Rectal prolapse, Calves, Mucosal resection, Rectal amputation.