Dahliatul Qosimah(1*), Djalal Rosyidi(2), Lilik E. Radiati(2), Indah A. Amri(1), Dodik Prasetyo(3), Fajar S. Permata(4) and Agri K. Anisa(5)
1- Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
2- Animal Product Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Science, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
3- Animal Clinical, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
4- Laboratory of Anatomy Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
5- Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Background: Foodborne diseases are caused by acquired pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis). It causes an intestinal imbalance, and the microbial toxins found in the gastrointestinal tract induces symptoms such as diarrhea. Coffee contains active ingredients such as antioxidants and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the body.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction between Lampung robusta coffee and tissue damage in chickens infected by S. enteritidis.
Methods: This study used first-day-old Isa brown layer chickens (n=60) divided into five treatment groups. The negative control group consists of healthy and normal chickens, whereas the positive control group consists of chickens infected with S. enteritidis bacteria at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml. Groups T1, T2, and T3 were given coffee extract with doses of 500 mg/kg BW (low dose), 1000 mg/kg BW (moderate dose), and 1500 mg/kg BW (high dose), respectively, then infected with S. enteritidis bacteria at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml. The coffee extract and bacteria were given orally via a feeding tube at a volume of 0.5 ml per chicks. The extract was given for 14 days (from day-3 to 16), and the bacteria were given on day-16 and 17. On day-18, the chickens were necropsied. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level was analyzed using One Way ANOVA test with GLM procedure (<0.05), while the tissue histopath was analyzed using descriptive qualitative to examine the ileal damage
Results: The results showed that MDA levels (nmol/L) decreased in treatment groups T1, T2, and T3 compared to the positive control. In contrast, we found improvements in the ileum histopathology of group T1 and T2 in the form of normal and regular intestinal epithelium arrangement of the ileum, long intestinal villi, and decreased total leukocytes.
Conclusion: Green coffee robusta has the potential to increase antioxidants and reduce inflammation in the small intestine of chickens infected with S. enteritidis.
Keywords: Layer chicks, Antioxidants, Green coffee, Enteric