Open Veterinary Journal

Peer-Reviewed Journal 
ISSN 2218-6050 (Online), ISSN 2226-4485 (Print) 


 Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia 

L.W. Tee* and M. Najiah

Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Terengganu, Malaysia



Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) and furazolidone (71.4%) while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100%) between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Heavy metal, Bullfrog, Bacteria.


Cite this paper:

Tee, L.W. and Najiah, M. 2011. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia. Open Vet. J. 1, 39-45.