Justin Shmalberg(1*), Patrick S. Moyle(2), William F. Craft(1) and Stuart A. Walton(2)
1- Department of Comparative, Diagnostic and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Avenue, PO Box 100116, Gainesville,
FL 32611-0880, USA
2- Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Avenue, PO Box 100116, Gainesville, FL 32611-0880, USA
Background: The oomycete Lagenidium giganteum forma caninum is an uncommon cause of severe dermal and subcutaneous infections in dogs with possible vascular invasion and other fatal sequelae. Infection within the central nervous system of affected dogs has not been previously reported.
Case Description: A 6-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was evaluated at a referral institution with a 2-month history of suspected fungal infection in the region of the right mandibular lymph node that was refractory to surgical resection and empiric medical therapy. Physical examination identified a 6-cm fluctuant subcutaneous mass caudoventral to the ramus of the right mandible and a second firm mass in the region of the right caudal maxilla. Lesional punch biopsies were submitted for fungal culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which subsequently identified L. giganteum forma caninum infection. Initial treatment consisted of anti-inflammatory doses of prednisone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Four weeks following initial evaluation, the patient was presented with progressive neurological signs consistent with a forebrain lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed soft-tissue, contrastenhancing lesions ventral to the calvarium adjacent to the site of original surgical resection and throughout the brain. Humane euthanasia was elected, and postmortem examination was consistent with the extension of local disease from the right masseter muscle into the right ventral calvarium. Postmortem DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of the organism as L. giganteum forma caninum.
Conclusion: This is the first reported case of intracranial lagenidiosis in the dog. PCR distinguished this species from other Lagenidium species and from oomycetes of other genera, such as Pythium insidiosum and Paralagenidium karlingii. Regional extension of cutaneous lagenidiosis should therefore be considered in cases with concurrent or spontaneous neurologic disease.
Keywords: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, Lagenidium giganteum forma caninum, Neurologic disease, Oomycete.
Cite this paper:
Shmalberg, J., Moyle, P.S., Craft, W.F. and Walton, S.A. 2020. Severe
meningoencephalitis secondary to calvarial invasion of Lagenidium giganteum forma caninum
in a dog. Open Vet. J. 10(1), 31-38.