Open Veterinary Journal

Open Veterinary Journal

Peer-Reviewed Journal 
ISSN 2218-6050 (Online), ISSN 2226-4485 (Print) 

"Short Communication"

Occurrence of infectious bronchitis in layer birds in Plateau state, north central Nigeria


Ismaila Shittu(1,*), Dorcas A. Gado(1), Clement A. Meseko(1), Davou C. Nyam(1), Kayode A. Olawuyi(1), Gyang D. Moses(2), Chinonoyerem N. Chinyere(1) and Tony M. Joannis(1)


1- Regional Laboratory for Animal Influenza and other TADs, National Veterinary Research Institute, PMB 01 Vom, 930010 Plateau State, Nigeria

2- Central Diagnostic Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

Abstract

A flock of 54 week-old layer birds exhibiting signs of respiratory distress, greenish diarrhea and drop in egg production was investigated. A marked drop in egg production (55%) was recorded with eggs appearing white and soft-shelled. Mortality was in the range of 1 – 2 % with post-mortem lesions revealing cloudy air sacs, frothy and congested lungs. Viral RNA was extracted from pooled tissue samples (trachea, lungs, spleen and liver) and tested for Avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, virus isolation was attempted in 9-11 day-old embryonating chicken eggs (ECE). In order to determine prevalence of IBV serotype(s) in the flock, serum samples were screened by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test using IBV antigens and antisera (Arkansas, Connecticut, and Massachusetts). Neither AIV nor NDV but IBV was detected in the tissue samples by RT-PCR. In addition, virus isolate obtained after four serial passages in ECE produced dwarfed, stunted and haemorrhagic embryos, and the isolate was confirmed by RT-PCR to be IBV. The serum samples were 100% seropositive for three serotypes with HI titres ranging from 5 to 12 Log2. In this study, IBV was confirmed as the causative agent of the observed respiratory distress and drop in egg production. Also, evidence of co-circulation of multiple IBV serotypes was established, this to the best of our knowledge is the first of such report in Nigeria. We recommend extensive molecular and sero-epidemiology of circulating IBV genotypes and serotypes in Nigeria with the aim of developing better control strategies including vaccination.

Keywords: Drop in egg production, Infectious bronchitis, Respiratory distress, Serotypes, Virus isolation.

Cite this paper:

Shittu, I., Gado, D.A., Meseko, C.A., Nyam, D.C., Olawuyi, K.A., Moses, G.D., Chinyere, C.N. and Joannis, T.M. 2019. Occurrence of infectious bronchitis in layer birds in Plateau state, north central Nigeria. Open Vet. J. 9(1), 74-80.