Open Veterinary Journal

Open Veterinary Journal

Peer-Reviewed Journal 
ISSN 2218-6050 (Online), ISSN 2226-4485 (Print) 

"Original Research"

Pre- and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension in dogs: Circulating biomarkers

Dmitrij Arkadievich Oleynikov(1*) and Ma Yi(2)

1- Veterinary clinic “Belij Klyk”, Moscow, Russian Federation, Russia

2- Laboratory of Transfusion and Efferent Therapy, Nacional’nyj medicinskij issledovatel’skij centr imeni V A Almazova:Sankt Peterburg, RU, Saint Petersburg, Russia


Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in dogs is a syndrome that could be primary or secondary due to pulmonary disease, pulmonary thromboembolism, heartworm disease, heart failure. Due to the inability of right heart catheterization in veterinary patients, there is a lack of differential criteria between PH forms. In some acute cases, it is impossible to provide a full EchoCG or catheterization study. In this situation, circulating markers may be useful to discover the possible mechanism of pulmonary hypertension form and provide specific therapy.

Aim: Following all previous data in human and veterinary studies, we assumed that plasm concentration of serotonin, endothelin-1 and VEGF-D would show a predominance of affected part of pulmonary circulation.

Methods: We studied 59 small-breed dogs of different sexes and ages. Groups were formed according to a primary pathology: healthy dogs (HD, n=8); dogs with MMVD and postcapillary PH (PostPH, n=23); dogs with MMVD and precapillary PH (PrePH, n=28). Animals in the study were diagnosed with the primary disease by standard echocardiographic methods and algorithms. Blood samples were collected at the moment of presentation and frozen in a -80oC fridge. For biochemistry analysis we used species-specific ELISA kits, provided by Cloud-Clone Corp. (USA) The tests were provided by the means of Almazov National Medical Research Center, IEM laboratory.

Results: Dogs with EchoCG-proved PostPH had a higher concentration of VEGF-D in comparison to control and PrePH (р <0.001, for both). There was no difference between the control and PrePH groups (р >0.05). Endothelin-1 was higher in PrePH in comparison to PostPH and control dogs (р <0.001, for both). In addition, there was no difference between control and PostPH groups (р >0.05). Serotonin concertation did not have a difference between controls and PostPH. However, it was higher in PrePH than in control (р <0.033) and postcapillary PH group (р <0.006). ROC analysis showed that plasma concentrations of Endothelin-1 (0.99) and VEGF-D (0.92) had high effectiveness in the differentiation of PostPH and PrePH.

Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between circulating biomarkers (serotonin, endothelin-1 and VEGF-D). We found a connection between endothelin-1 and right-sided heart failure as well as VEGF-D and left heart failure in the PH context.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Endothelin-1, Pulmonary hypertension, Serotonin, VEGF-D.

Cite this paper:
Oleynikov, D.A. and Yi, M. 2022. Pre- and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension in dogs: Circulating biomarkers. Open Vet. J. 12(4), 469-480.