Open Veterinary Journal

Open Veterinary Journal

Peer-Reviewed Journal 
ISSN 2218-6050 (Online), ISSN 2226-4485 (Print) 

"Original Research"

A pilot study of patch Holter electrocardiograph recordings in healthy cats

Mizuki Ogawa*, Saran Fatim Kaba, Hirosumi Miyakawa, Huai-hsun Hsu, Yuichi Miyagawa and Naoyuki Takemura

Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine II, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyonan-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan


Background: A patch Holter electrocardiograph (P-Holter) is cordless, making it lightweight unlike the conventional Holter electrocardiograph (C-Holter). A P-Holter can also take continuous measurements. For up to 14 days without replacing the battery or SD card.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the P-Holter and the C-Holter in healthy cats. Additionally, we aimed to investigate whether multiday recordings with the P-Holter decrease sympathetic nerve activity or improve the accuracy of arrhythmia detection. 

Methods: Five healthy domestic short-haired cats were used for this study. Both a P-Holter and C-Holter were used on the first day, but only the P-Holter was used on days 2 to 6. The evaluated variables were the analyzable time of both Holter types, heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and the number of arrhythmia occurrences.

Results: For two out of the five cats, measurement of P-Holter was interrupted. Eventually, continuous recordings using the P-Holters were able to be collected from all individuals for 6 days. The 24 h analyzable time from the P-Holter and C-Holter was almost identical (p = 0.94). The 24 h mean HR did not differ across Holter types (p = 0.67). In addition, the timing of the occurrences of arrhythmias was almost identical to the P-Holter and C-Holter. Results of HRV suggested that sympathetic nerve activity was likely to decrease and vagal nerve activity was likely to increase after 4 to 5 days of measurement, compared to the second day of measurement (p < 0.05). When only the P-Holter was installed, the number of arrhythmia occurrences was similar on days 2 to 6.

Conclusion: In this study, the P-Holter may be as useful as the C-Holter in cats with suspected intermittent arrhythmias, although these P-Holters were placed on cats without a clinical indication. However, cats may have individual differences in their adaptation to the device. P-Holter recordings taken for more than 4 to 5 days may allow the cat to acclimate to the device and reduce sympathetic nerve activity. The accuracy of arrhythmia detection across multiday P-Holter recordings requires further investigation using clinical cases.

Keywords: Electrocardiograph, Heart rate variability, Heart rate, Arrhythmias.

Cite this paper:
Ogawa, M., Kaba, S.F., Miyakawa, H., Hsu, H-h., Miyagawa, Y. and Takemura, N. 2022. A pilot study of patch Holter electrocardiograph recordings in healthy cats. Open Vet. J. 12(4), 489-494.