Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor offering comment or useful critique on material published in the journal are welcomed. The publication of Letters to the Editor by the Open Veterinary Journal provides an opportunity for the exchange of information, for posing questions to authors of material published in the Open Veterinary Journal, or for noting alternative viewpoints or perspectives. It is hoped that the publication of such letters will permit an exchange of views which will be of benefit to both the journal and its readers, as well as provide an opportunity for the reader to respond to the contents of the Open Veterinary Journal. Letters to the Editor will be forwarded to authors for their possible response. Decisions on publishing a Letter to the Editor will be made by the Editor-in-Chief of the Open Veterinary Journal. Authors must provide full contact information including address, telephone number, and e-mail address. Authors who are willing to send Letters to the Editor, they should submit their Letters to the Editor as email attachment to the Editor-in-Chief or Journal's email.
"Letter to the Editor"
Sergei V. Jargin*
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 117198 Moscow, Russia
Chondroitin (Ch) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG); and glucosamine (Ga) is an aminosaccharide acting as a substrate for biosynthesis of GAG. Ch undergoes hydrolysis in the intestine; being administered orally, it can also be regarded as a source of precursors for GAG. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a GAG used for intra-articular injections. These substances are applied for the treatment of osteoarthritis and named chondroprotectants or chondroprotectives. The oral GAG have been discussed within the group of Symptomatic Slow-Acting Drugs in Osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) (Bruyère et al., 2016), which is hardly justified: these drugs are supposed to act primarily not upon symptoms but upon the pathogenesis – to compensate for a deficiency of cartilage constituents. The evidence in favor of chondroprotective effectiveness of GAG and their components is conflicting. Despite the popularity of chondroprotectives, there is skepticism in the scientific community (Vista and Lau, 2011). For example, a meta-analysis concluded that “Ch, Ga, and their combination do not have a clinically relevant effect on perceived joint pain or on joint space narrowing” (Wandel et al., 2010). Another key remark: “Given that there is an effect, understanding the biochemical basis of this effect might lead to more useful supplements” (Wood, 2010). The point is that the biochemical basis is not readily understandable. GAG and their precursors are not irreplaceable; they are synthesized in the body. It appears doubtful that oral supplementation of precursors can shift an equilibrium between synthesis and degradation in the whole body to such extent that it would be significant for the joint cartilage. Furthermore, source materials such as shellfish chitin and fungi for Ga, or cartilage from mammals, birds or fish for Ch (Black et al., 2009), manufacturing methods and contaminants, can influence biological and pharmacological properties of preparations (Volpi, 2009).
With regard to intra-articular injections of HA, a meta-analysis concluded that “currently available evidence suggests that intra-articular GA is not clinically effective” (Arrich et al., 2005). The evidence remains inconsistent and controversial (Nguyen et al., 2016). Action mechanisms of intra-articular HA are hardly understandable, even the “lubrication at the joint surfaces” i.e. viscosupplementation used both in humans and animals (Lohmander et al., 1996; Goodrich and Nixon, 2006). Viscosity changes in consequence of HA injections can be measured e.g. adding HA to cadaverous synovial fluid. Both pre- and post-treatment viscosity values were reported to be within the range of normal values (Brandt et al., 2000). Analgesic effects lasting longer than the residence time of the injected HA in joints were reported both in humans and in horses with painful osteoarthritis. Furthermore, it was reported that viscous properties of HA solutions are the determining factors in reducing pains in cat and rat joints as well as promoting the healing of traumatic intra-articular wounds in animal arthritis models (Balazs, 2004). However, the lubrication effect cannot last long: no explanation has been found for the discrepancy between the short intra-articular half-life of injected HA and the reported duration of the clinical carry-over effect in humans. The intra-articular half-life of Hyalgan (sodium hyaluronate) is about 17 h; the low molecular weight component of Synvisc (Hylan G-F 20 constituting about 90% of the preparation) has an intra-articular half-life of 1.5 days; and the component with a higher molecular weight - 8.8 days (Brandt et al., 2000). Nevertheless, the carry-over effect after the treatment lasted from about 3 months with oral chondroprotectives to 6-9 months with intra-articular formulations (Uebelhart, 2008).
HA is a polymer; according to the law of mass action, its local enrichment would displace the chemical equilibrium toward low-molecular precursors, thus contributing to the reduction of viscosity. Therefore, suppositions about “induction of biosynthesis of endogenous HA” (Bruyère et al., 2016) by injections of the same substance are not substantiated. As for molecular mechanisms studied in vitro (Brandt et al., 2000), their clinical relevance is questionable because of higher concentrations of tested substances in vitro than in vivo (Black et al., 2009). Note that Ch, Ga and HA were chosen for supplementation therapy, and a probability of their specific e.g. anti-inflammatory effect (Altman et al., 2018) or “inhibition of chondrodegenerative enzymes” (Xing et al., 2016) would a priori be the same as for any substance taken at random.
*Corresponding Author: Sergei V. Jargin. Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 6, Miklukho-Maklay Street 117198 Moscow, Russia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Altman, R., Hackel, J., Niazi, F., Shaw, P. and Nicholls, M. 2018. Efficacy and safety of repeated courses of hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.01.009.
Arrich, J., Piribauer, F., Mad, P., Schmid, D., Klaushofer, K. and Mullner, M. 2005. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ 172, 1039-1043.
Balazs, E.A. 2004. Viscosupplementation for treatment of osteoarthritis: from initial discovery to current status and results. Surg. Technol. Int. 12, 278-289.
Bhathal, A., Spryszak, M., Louizos, C. and Frankel, G. 2017. Glucosamine and chondroitin use in canines for osteoarthritis: A review. Open Vet. J. 7(1), 36-49.
Black, C., Clar, C., Henderson, R., MacEachern, C., McNamee, P., Quayyum, Z., Royle, P. and Thomas, S. 2009. The clinical effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements in lowing or arresting progression of osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol. Assess. 13, 1-148.
Brandt, K.D., Smith, G.N. Jr. and Simon, L.S. 2000. Intraarticular injection of hyaluronan as treatment for knee osteoarthritis: what is the evidence? Arthritis Rheum. 43, 1192-1203.
Bruyère, O., Cooper, C., Pelletier, J.P., Maheu, E., Rannou, F., Branco, J., Luisa Brandi, M., Kanis, J.A., Altman, R.D., Hochberg, M.C., Martel-Pelletier, J. and Reginster, J.Y. 2016. A consensus statement on the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis-From evidence-based medicine to the real-life setting. Semin. Arthritis. Rheum. 45(4 Suppl.), S3-11.
Goodrich, L.R. and Nixon, A.J. 2006. Medical treatment of osteoarthritis in the horse - a review. Vet. J. 171(1), 51-69.
Jargin, S.V. 2012. Supplementation of glycosaminoglycans and their precursors in osteoarthritis versus diet modification. Int. J. Rheum. Dis. 15(3), e45-6.
Lohmander, L.S., Dalén, N., Englund, G., Hämäläinen, M., Jensen, E.M., Karlsson, K., Odensten, M., Ryd, L., Sernbo, I., Suomalainen, O. and Tegnander, A. 1996. Intra-articular hyaluronan injections in the treatment of osteo-arthritis of the knee: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled multicentre trial. Hyaluronan Multicentre Trial Group. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 55, 424-431.
Nguyen, C., Lefèvre-Colau, M.M., Poiraudeau, S. and Rannou, F. 2016. Evidence and recommendations for use of intra-articular injections for knee osteoarthritis. Ann. Phys. Rehabil. Med. 59(3), 184-189.
Uebelhart, D. 2008. Clinical review of chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16(Suppl. 3), S19-21.
Vista, E.S. and Lau, C.S. 2011. What about supplements for osteoarthritis? A critical and evidenced-based review. Int. J. Rheum. Dis. 14, 152-8.
Volpi, N. 2009. Quality of different chondroitin sulfate preparations in relation to their therapeutic activity. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 61, 1271-80.
Wandel, S., Jüni, P., Tendal, B., Nüesch, E., Villiger, P.M., Welton, N.J., Reichenbach, S. and Trelle, S. 2010. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ 341, c4675.
Wood, M.J. 2010. Conclusion not consistent with results. BMJ Rapid Response, 24 September 2010 https://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/11/03/conclusion-not-consistent-results (accessed 5 July 2018).Xing, D., Wang, B., Liu, Q., Ke, Y., Xu, Y., Li, Z. and Lin J. 2016. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in treating knee osteoarthritis: a PRISMA-compliant systematic review of overlapping meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 6, 32790.
“Letter to the Editor”
Nader Naghshineh, PhD
Department of Information Sciences and Knowledge Studies, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Niloofar Solhjoo*, MSLIS
Department of Information Sciences and Knowledge Studies, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Fatima Fahimnia, PhD
Department of Information Sciences and Knowledge Studies, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Many organizations all around the world try to help veterinary profession in understanding, using and extending the practice of information science and technology. Since 1995 The Association for Veterinary Informatics (AVI), a non-profit international organization comprised of individuals involved in biomedical informatics research, education and advocacy within the domain of veterinary medicine, started the Talbot Informatics Symposium, in memory of Dr. Richard Talbot, a pioneer in veterinary informatics. “Better Data Saves Pets” is AVI 23rd Annual Symposium motto which is held in Kansas City in August 2018. It gives opportunity to share informatics expertise from libraries to veterinary practice.
Moreover, the Animal Health Information Specialists (AHIS) group has been active for over 20 years and collaborates between veterinary librarians and veterinary information specialists in Europe, North America, and other countries. AHIS attempts to bring together all those who are employed or interested in the dissemination of animal health information, to foster co-operation and resource sharing, and to stimulate interest in related matters.
As the same, in Africa and Asia we need to give rise to opportunities to promote animal health information and evidence-based veterinary medicine. Paying attention to the wellbeing of companion animals has increasingly been growing in Islamic countries such as Iran in the past decade (Grisoni and Mashkour, 2016). According to the news based on numbers of hospitals offering services to pets and sales of veterinary vaccination, the number of domestic animals in Iran is increasing (Biazar, 2015; Hashemzadeh, 2017). Afro-Asian veterinary science, just as medical science, is constantly adapted to new technologies. Some veterinarians professionally are using tools of Web 2.0 to seek and share health information about animals, interact with pet owners, contact with other partners, and promote research and marketing. As the same, veterinarians’ clients use the internet, especially social media to find health information about their pets, express their experiences and describe the events related to their pets' disease process. So, as the same projects and researches in America (Kogan et al., 2010; Dinkelman et al., 2011) we need a relation between veterinarians and information specialist to provide services and materials that could identify high quality sources for animal health information.
As one of the early works in this field in Iran, we, researchers at the faculty of Information Sciences and Knowledge Studies of Tehran University, have been conducting a study on veterinarians prescribed information as a tool to guide pet owner’s health information behavior (Solhjoo, 2017). We explored the role of pet owner’s health literacy in the application of the veterinarian’s prescribed information and emphasized on veterinarians collaboration with information specialists and librarians to perform education efforts to raise awareness on animal health information quality and impact of veterinarian directed information prescription especially among low health literate owners. As it is the initial alliance between Afro-Asian animal health professionals and information specialists, studying the impact of such a cooperation, as well as more general research into information and the impact on animal health and on the veterinary-client relationship for pet owners, is sorely needed. Future research on this topic would no doubt benefit from collaborative efforts across information science and animal health researchers.
*Corresponding Author: Niloofar Solhjoo. Department of Information Sciences and Knowledge Studies, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Tel.: 989127164536. Email: email@example.com
Biazar, Y. 2015. Perspective of pet keeping in Iran. (in Persian). Moshavereh Dampezeshk [Veterinarian Consultant]. Spring and Summer (15), 21-23.
Dinkelman, A.L., Viera, A.R. and Bickett-Weddle, D.A. 2011. The role of veterinary medical librarians in teaching information literacy. J. Vet. Med. Educ. 38(2), 141-149.
Grisoni, A. and Mashkour, M. 2016. Every Dog Has Its Day: New Patterns in Pet Keeping in Iran. Anthropology of the Middle East 11(1), 112-126.
Hashemzadeh, M. 2017. ME largest veterinary hospital opens in Tehran. Mehrnews Agency. Retrieved from https://en.mehrnews.com/news/123342/ME-largest-veterinary-hospital-opens-in-Tehran.
Kogan, L.R., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., Simon, A.A. and Viera, A.R. 2010. The Internet and pet health information: perceptions and behaviors of pet owners and veterinarians. Int. J. Vet. Med. 8(1), 1-19.
Solhjoo, N. 2017. The association of information prescriptions in veterinary clinic on pet owner’s health information seeking behaviour and health literacy (Master dissertation). University of Tehran, Iran.
Prof. Ramadan Omer Ramadan, a member of the Editorial Board of the Open Veterinary Journal and Professor of surgery at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, passed away on Thursday the 21st of September, 2017, after suffering with the disease at the Prince Sultan Center for Cardiac Surgery in Saudi Arabia.
All Editorial Board members of the Open Veterinary Journal are sending their sincere condolences to his family, relatives and his colleagues and ask Allah to accept him with mercy. He will be fondly remembered. He will be sadly missed. May his soul rest in peace.
By: Ibrahim Eldaghayes (Editor-in-Chief)
I would like to thank and express my gratitude to all members of the Editorial Board for providing the support and feedback necessary to ﬁnd, develop, and publish material of such consistent high quality. All papers are peer-reviewed. Moreover, with the presence of international reviewers and referees, the process of publication will be and has been done rapidly and to the highest standards. (Special thanks to all reviewers and referees who supported the journal by reviewing and evaluating all submitted manuscripts to the journal on a voluntary basis. Here's the list of all names of: Reviewers and Referees).
I also would like to thank the publisher of the journal: "Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli".
I also would like to extend my thanks to the University of Tripoli, the Libyan National Center of Animal Health and the Libyan Authority for Research, Science and Technology for supporting Open Veterinary Journal by covering the expenses of the good quality printing of the previous issues of the journal.
It has been and still a real pleasure and certainly a rewarding experience serving as Editor-in-Chief of Open Veterinary Journal. Editorial obligations have not been a simple task and it is a time consuming, and I hope that you have enjoyed and benefited from all the published articles in Open Veterinary Journal at least as much as I did.
I consider it a great honor being as an Editor-in-Chief of Open Veterinary Journal, and I will do my best to face all challenges that confront the journal and striving to increase the quality and impact of the journal's content.
All Researches within the aim and scope of the journal can be submitted and considered for publication. We highly appreciate our readers’ feedback, so please share your ideas and thoughts with us on Twitter and Open Veterinary Journal page on the Facebook.
The life of our Journal proceeds very well (First publication in the journal was in January 2011) in term of its popularity within our scientific community, given the number of submissions that we receive and the level of citations which we are achieving and hoping it will increase by time.
It is my pleasure to invite all researchers especially in the veterinary sciences to submit scientific articles to Open Veterinary Journal.
By: Chengming Wang (Member of the Editorial Board)
Dear Readers and Authors,
It gives me a great pleasure to serve on the editorial board of the Open Veterinary Journal (OVJ). This is a peer-reviewed open-access journal offering a unique platform for veterinary practitioners, veterinary scientists and others with relevant interest. Since its foundation in 2011, the OVJ has made exceptional progress and is now included in many international indexing services such as PubMed Central, Scopus, EBSCO, and African Journals OnLine etc. Under the leadership of the OVJ Editor-in-Chief, efforts from the editorial board members and supports from you as readers and authors, I am confident that the OVJ will soon reach the goal of being included in the Science Citation Index with a Journal Impact Factor. The OVJ will go on to establish its international reputation as a highly respected journal for accessing high-quality manuscripts.
I would like to thank all those who contributed manuscripts to the OVJ and others who have given their precious time to review and edit the submitted manuscripts for free. I wish all our readers and members of the editorial board a happy and prosperous new year 2016, and look forward to a bright and successful future for the OVJ.
Chengming Wang DVM, MS, PhD
Member of the Editorial Board
By: Whitney M. Kistler (Member of the Editorial Board)
It is a pleasure to be able to serve on the editorial board of the Open Veterinary Journal (OVJ). This journal is keeping up with the times. It is one of the few places that allows authors to publish quality research in an open format, free of charge. In addition, our journal has an excellent editorial staff that ensures the work published is conducted scientifically sound and ethical manner. We pride ourselves on the rapid turnaround of articles for publication and are able to get articles turned around quickly for publication.
Although the OVJ began in 2011, it continues to gain traction within the scientific community. This is apparent by the increase in websites that index OVJ and the steady increase in our impact factor. Furthermore, the journal continues to receive submission from prominent authors conducting amazing research in their fields.
I would like to thank the editorial board, the reviewers, and scientists who have provided this opportunity for me to work with such an exciting journal in its infancy. I look forward to watching the OVJ grow and create a bigger impact on the scientific community.
Whitney M. Kistler M.S., PhD
Member of the Editorial Board
By: Richard G. Lea (Associate Editor)
It is an honour to be asked to write this short editorial about the Open Veterinary Journal. The “publish or perish” pressure is on all of us and it is refreshing to serve on a journal that publishes on a diverse range of veterinary topics encompassing original research papers, reviews, short communications and case reports.
Despite the inevitable push towards publishing in the highest impact factor journals possible, the other side of the coin is ensuring that your work is easily accessible to a relevant readership whilst maintaining the highest quality and rigour of the peer review process. This is where the Open Veterinary Journal excels since each year clinical reports and laboratory based but clinically relevant studies are published side by side. The Open Access policy of the journal ensures that the high quality papers have maximum accessibility world-wide, and the lack of page charges, including colour, facilitates the process of paper submission.
As a relatively new journal about to enter its 5th year, I feel that the OVJ will go on to achieve greater things in terms of its international reputation as a highly respected free forum for accessing excellent quality manuscripts. I would like to offer my sincere thanks all those who have contributed to the journal from the successful authors through to those who have given their time to review, edit and enhance submitted manuscripts.
I look forward to a bright and successful future for the OVJ.
Richard G. Lea
The Open Veterinary Journal, a peer reviewed open access journal focussing on veterinary science, has made outstanding progress made by since its foundation in 2011. The quality and diversity of the papers published in OVJ offers a unique platform for veterinary science which is reflected in its increasing popularity. Online alone there have been over 45 000 views of since its launch. Readers are from diverse sectors of veterinary science, located in over 140 different countries.
Many research funding bodies throughout the world are now demanding free access to scientific publications that are funded through their support. Publication in OVJ does just that. OVJ operates under an open access publication model, meaning that all interested readers are able to freely access the journal online without the need for a subscription fee. Furthermore Open Veterinary Journal does not levy any page charges, colour charges, or article processing charges for either the submitted or accepted articles. All papers are meticulously peer-reviewed by international referees to the highest standards. To enable OVJ to gain further credibility and impact, we invite all researchers in the veterinary sciences to submit research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports for publication.
We would like to thank all authors who have contributed manuscripts OVJ and those who are awaiting their manuscripts publication in subsequent issues.
I am extremely privileged to be offered the opportunity to communicate with you all through this page.
It is not an easy task to write about something that is yours as everyone of us will be biased. However, I find it different when it comes to the Open Veterinary Journal (OVJ)! As a reader, I have been following the remarkable progress made by OVJ since its foundation.
The quality of the papers published tells the nice story. OVJ offers a unique platform for veterinary practitioners, veterinary scientists and others with relevant interest. Personally, I have enjoyed editing and reviewing the broad-range articles, which I found very refreshing for someone like me as a researcher and a former practitioner. This is very different from reviewing an article for a specialised journal.
As a member of the OVJ family, I have been promoting the Journal to my colleagues in the UK and elsewhere. They were impressed by the quality of the Journal, but the first question they ask is about Impact Factor. Here comes the mission of the authors and readers – the more we publish in and cite OVJ the higher the impact factor.
I would like to thank everyone who supported OVJ with time, money, articles, editing…etc. Success of OVJ is the responsibility of all. Please keep promoting OVJ.
It is mandatory for a scientist or researcher to publish a quality paper in a quality journal which has creditability. I do understand that every paper cannot be published in journals like “Nature or Science”. However, there are number of journals which publish quality papers. This is where Open Veterinary Journal (OVJ) comes in my thoughts.
When it was launched about four years ago, its future, at least in my view, was uncertain. Maybe it is the only journal whose entire editorial board including editor-in-chief are volunteers and none of them get paid. Not only that but some of them even contribute not only their time but their own money towards the running costs of both the on line and printed versions of this journal. They continued to dedicate their time and efforts to provide scientists and researches world-wide with a free platform where they can publish their papers without having to face the burden of paying publishing fees in any form or another.
Now, having written that, OVJ has met several criteria of a good journal and the standards of its peers. Scientists from different parts of the world have contributed their papers for this journal, which were referred and reviewed by top scientists in their fields. I am sure that OVJ will go a long way in serving the scientific community.
I would like to thank all authors who contributed manuscripts for this issue and other authors who are waiting patiently to get their manuscripts published in subsequent issues.
I wish all our readers and members of the editorial board a happy and prosperous new year 2014.
Salah M. Azwai
Dr Mohamed Abdelhafid Hamid Al-Arbi, BVSc, MVSc, PhD. 1945-2011.
After a remarkable career with the Department of Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at University of Tripoli, that spanned 27 years and which ended with his passing on 15/03/2011 in Tripoli, Dr. Mohamed A. H. Al-Arbi will be fondly remembered as a respected teacher, Head of Department, avian pathologist and skilled veterinarian.
was instrumental in developing strong and lasting linkages between the
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli and sectors of
livestock and industries in Libya. He was the founder and Head of the
Libyan Veterinary Poultry Association and an Associate Editor at the Open Veterinary Journal.
published a number of journal articles, mainly on Infectious Bronchitis
and Newcastle disease, undertook several consultancies, and produced
several international conference papers. He was a member of many professional associations, councils, committees and boards in the fields of veterinary sciences. He
will be sadly missed by his family and many friends in Libya
and elsewhere, and remembered with much respect and appreciation by
his peers and colleagues within the veterinary services. May his soul
rest in peace.