Open Veterinary Journal

Open Veterinary Journal

Peer-Reviewed Journal 
ISSN 2218-6050 (Online), ISSN 2226-4485 (Print) 

Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs


Rogério Ribas Lange(1), Leandro Lima(1), Erika Frühvald(1), Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva(2), Aparecida Sônia de Souza(2) and Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira(1,*)


1 Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Rua dos Funcionários, 1540, Bairro Juvevê, 80035-050, Curitiba – PR, Brazil

2 Universidade Estadual de Campina (UNICAMP), Centro de Ciência e Qualidade de Alimentos ITAL, Avenida Brasil, 2880, Campinas – SP, Brazil



The aim of this investigation is to describe the potential contributing nutritional factors involved in the development of ophthalmic and dermatologic changes in four Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs fed an artificial milk formula. The affected animals were compared with two other tiger cubs that had been nursed by their dam naturally.  After the first clinical signs appeared, the tiger cubs underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Severe symmetric generalized alopecia over the trunk, sparing the head and distal portion of the front and rear limbs, bilateral cataracts and strabismus were noticed. Milk and blood from the mother, as well as blood from the healthy and affected cubs were collected in order to evaluate complete blood counts, serum chemistry values, and amino acid levels. The amino acid concentrations in the artificial formula were also evaluated for comparison to the milk from the dam. The concentration of taurine, arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and histidine were very low in the artificial formulas as compared to the dam´s milk. The tiger cubs that received the artificial formula had lower levels of the amino acids listed previously as compared to those that nursed from the dam naturally. Taurine, as well as arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and histidine deficiency appeared to be possible causes of the development of skin problems, cataracts and strabismus in the tiger cubs fed with these particular artificial milk replacers. In the future, special attention should be given in order to make sure that adequate levels of these amino acids are present in artificial milk for tiger cubs.

Keywords: Alopecia, Amino acids, Lens opacity, Wild felid, Zoo animal.

Lange, R.R., Lima, L., Frühvald, E., da Silva, V.S.N., de Souza, A.S. and Montiani-Ferreira, F. 2017. Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs. Open Vet. J. 7(1), 23-31.