Aasish Gautam(1*), Krishna Kaphle(2), Birendra Shrestha(1) and Samiksha Phuyal(1)
1- Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Siddharthanagar-1, Rupandehi, Nepal
2- Director, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Siddharthanagar-1, Rupandehi, Nepal
Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged human down. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 was identified as a newest disease presumably of bat origin. Different theory of evolution of virus is in circulation, yet there is no denying fact that animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of COVID-19 global pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS and seems to be more severe. Besides human, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subject of intense research. The review aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross species transmission. This is essential that animal as pet or food are said to pose some risk and their better understanding is must to prepare possible plan for its future havoc both in human and animal health. Though COVID-19 which is causing widespread human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non- human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 respectively whereas dromedary camel for MERS- coronavirus. Phylogenetically all the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bat and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. But, it is difficult to analyze how genomic pattern of coronaviruses occur. Thus, increased possibility of more new virus variant generation to infect human and animal in upcoming day seems biggest challenge for future world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead and understanding the animal dimension will go long way in formulating such preparedness plans.
Keywords: Animal health, COVID-19, Cross-species, One health, Trio coronaviruses.